Tarihin Rayuwar Marigayiya Sarauniyar Ingila, Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth II
Late Queen in the mid 1940's

Elizabeth ta biyu ita ce Sarauniyar Ingila daga 6 ga Fabrairu 1952 har zuwa rasuwarta a ranar 8 ga Satumba 2022. Sarautar ta na shekaru 70 da kwanaki 214 ita ce mafi tsayi a duk wani mulkin sarki na Biritaniya kuma mafi tsawo na biyu a tarihin kowane sarki na kowace ƙasa mai iko.

HAIHUWA

An haifi Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor a ranar 21 ga Afirilun 1926, a wani gida da ke gefen dandalin Berkely a Landan,inda ta kasance 'ya ta farko ga Albert, Basarake Duke na York, wanda shi ne da na biyu a wajen Sarki George V da maidakinsa, mai lakabin martabar sarauta ta Duchess, wadda a da sunanta ُ Elizabeth Bowes Lyon.

Elizabeth da 'yar uwarta Margaret Rose, wadda aka haifa a shekarar 1930 sun yi karatu a gida, karkashin kulawar zuri'arsu a yanayi mai annashuwa da nuna kauna. Elizabeth ta samu matukar kusanci da mahaifinta da kakanta George V.

Tana da shekara 6, Elizabeth ta fada wa mai ba ta horon sukuwar doki, cewa, 'tana da burin zama mace mai kimar matsayin daraja da ta mallaki dawakai da karnuka." An bayyana cewa ta nuna alamun iya jan ragamar al'umma tun tana karama. Winston Churchill, wanda a zamanin yake hankoron zama Firayiministan kasar, an jiyo daga gare shi, cewa, "tana da kwarjinin mulki, al'amarin da ke da ban mamaki ga yarinya karama." An samar da kungiyar 'yan mata masu aikin agaji na "Girl Guides" irinta ta farko a fadar Buckinhgham, wadda aka kafa da manufar (Elizabeth) ta saba mu'amala da rukunin 'yan matan da ke matakin shekarunta.

Bayan mutuwar George V a shekarar 1936, babban dansa, da aka sani da David, ya zama (Sarki) Edward VII. Sai dai zabar auren matar da aka taba sakinta (ta raba) aure har sau biyu, wato Ba'Amurkiyya Wallis Simpson lamari ne da ba a amince da shi ba, bisa dalilain siyasa da na addini, inda karshen wannan shekarar ya yi murabus. Basarake Duke na York, wanda bai sa a kaba, sai ya zama Sarki George VI. Nadin sarautarsa ya bai wa Elizabeth kafar nuni da al'amarin da ke shirin faruwa da ita, inda daga bisani ta rubuta cewa ta samu aikin hidima (ga al'umma) "cike da ban mamaki." Sabanin Karin tashe-tashen hankulan da aka yi fama da su a Turai, sabon Sarki, tare da matarsa Sarauniya Elizabeth, sun yi kokarin dawo da martabar sarauta a idon al'umma. Kwatankwacin kokarinsa bai fadi kasa ba, tare da babbar 'yarsa.

A shekarar 1939, Gimbiya 'yar shekara 13 ta raka sarki da sarauniya ziyarar kwalejin horar da jami'an sojan ruwa ta Dartmonth. Ita da 'yar uwarta sun samu rakiyar dan uwanta na nesa, Yarima Philip na kasar Girka (tsohuwar daular Greece).

Wannan ba shi ne karon farko na haduwarsu ba, amma shi ne karon farko da ta ji tana kaunarsa.Yarima Philip ya rika kai ziyara ga danginsa 'yan sarauta a duk sa'adda ya samu hutu daga aikin sojan ruwa, ta yadda zuwa shekarar 1944, lokacin Elizabeth na da shekara 18 ta bayyana karara tana sonsa. Ta aje hotonsa a dakinta, kuma sun rika yin musayar wasiku (a tsakaninsu).

Wannan matashiyar Gimbiya ta shiga aikin wucin gadi na ATS a karshen yaki, inda ta koyi tuki da gyaran babbar mota. A ranar VE ta hadu da iyalan gidan sarauta a fadar Buckingham lokacin da dubban mutane suka taru don murnar bikin kawo karshen yaki a Turai. Mun nemi izinin iyayena kan ko mun iya fita daga fada mun gane wa idonmu,'" kamar yadda ta tuna daga bisani."

Na tuna muna jin tsoro a gane mu. Na tuna jerin mutanen da ba mu san su ba, sun hada makamai suna sakowa daga dakin taron Whitehall, daukacinmu duk muna cike da farin ciki da annashuwar samun sa'ida. Bayan kammala yaki burinta na son auren Philip ya hadu da tarnaki daga bangarori da dama. Sarki na dar-dar din rabuwa da 'yarsa, wadda ke da kusanci da shi, kuma lallai sai Philip ya sauya kasarsa ta haihuwa, al'amarin da ya haifar masa da kyara a wajen al'umma.

AURENSU DA YARIMA PHILIP

Burin wadannan ma'aurata ya cika, inda a ranar 20 ga Nuwambar 1947 suka yi aure a Westminster Abbey.

Basarake Duke na Edinburgh, mukamin da Philip ya samu, ya ci gaba da kasancewa jami'in sojan ruwa. A dan wani takaitaccen lokaci, aka tura shi Malta, lamarin da ya nuna yadda matasan ma'auratan suka dandana dadin rayuwar aure. An haifi dansu na farko, Charles a shekarar 1948, sai 'yar uwarsa Anne da aka haifa a shekarar 1950.

RASUWAR MAHAIFINTA

Amma da Sarki ya yi fama da laulayin rashin jin dadi a shekarun yaki, har cutarsa ta zama ta ajali, inda ya yi fama da ciwon dajin huhu da ta zama ta ajali, sanadiyyar yawan bankar hayakin taba.

A Janairun 1952, Elizabeth, lokacin tana da shekara 25 tare da Philip suka shirya tafiya yawon bude ido kasar waje. Sarkin ya ki bin umarnin likita, inda ya tafi filin jirgin sama don ganin tashin ma'auratan. Wannan dai ya kasance karshen ganin da Elizabeth ta yi wa mahaifinta, Elizabeth ta samu labarin rasuwar mahaifinta Sarki lokacin da suke zaune a wajen shakatawa na kasar Kenya, kuma ba da wani bata lokaci ba ta koma Landan a matsayin sabuwar Sarauniya. Haka ta tuna al'amuran da suka wakana (a wancan zamanin).

"A haka dai, ban samu koyon dabarun gudanar da al'amura (harkokin sarauta). Domin mahaifina ya mutu da sauran karfinsa, al'amari ne da ya auku kwatsam, shi ya sa na kama rikon ragamar tare da yin iya kokarin abin da mutum ke iya yi iya yinsa."

NADATA SARAUTA

Nadin sarautarta da aka gudanar a Yunin 1953 an nuna shi a talabijin, duk da adawar Firayiminista Winston Churchill, miliyoyin mutane sun taru a gaban talabijin, wadanda mafi yawansu shi ne karon farko da suka ga Sarauniya Elizabeth II ta yi rantsuwar kama ragamar aiki. Birtaniya dai har zuwa lokacin tana fama da matsin tsuke bakin aljihu bayan kammala yaki, kuma masu sharhi sun yi nuni da cewa wannan shi ne sabon babin mulkin Elizabeth. Yakin Duniya na Biyu ya kasance al'amarin da ya hanzarta kawo karshen Daular Birtaniya, kuma a daidai lokacin sabuwar Sarauniya ta yi ziyarar karade kasashen da ke karkashin mulkinta a Nuwambar 1953, wanda mafi yawan kasashen da suka taba kasancewa karkashin mulkin Birtaniya suka samu 'yancin kansu, wato kasashen da suka hada da Indiya.

Elizabeth ta zama Basarakiya ta farko da ta ziyarci Austiraliya da New Zealand. An dai kiyasta cewa kimanin uku bisa hudu (3/4) na 'yan Austiraliya sun fito don kallonta. A daukacin shekarun 1950, kasashe da dama sun sauke tutar hadin gwiwa, sannan kasashen da aka taba yi wa mulkin mallaka sun shiga kungiyar sa-kai ta hadin gwiwar kasashen. 'Yan siyasa da dama sun rika ganin kungiyar kasashen ta commonwealth na iya zama tarnaki ga sabuwar kungiyar hadin gwiwar bunkasa tattalin arzikin Turai, kuma ta wani bangaren a iya cewa an yi watsi da tsare-tsaren Birtaniya a nahiyar.

SUKAR LAMIRI

Faduwar tasirin karfin ikon Birtaniya ya zuzuta wutar ricikin mashigin ruwan suez a shekarar1956, lokacin da ta bayyana karara kungiyar kasashen rainon Birtaniya sun kasa yin katabus wajen hadin gwiwar daukar matakin da ya dace a lokacin rikici.

Shirin da aka yi na tura sojoji su shawo kan kasar Masar ya kasance barazana wajen mayar da mashigin ruwan Suez Canal mallakar kasa , inda aka karke da nade tabarmar kunyar janyewa (daga farmakin), al'amarin da ya haifar da murabus din Firayiminista Anthony Eden.

Lamarin ya jefa Sarauniya cikin rikicin siyasa.

Jam'iyyar Conservative ba ta da tsarin zabar sabon shugaba, sai dai bayan an yi ta tuntubar shawarwarin daidait a al'amura, sai Sarauniya ta gayyato Harold Mcmillan don ya kafa sabuwar gwamnati. A nan ne Lord Altrincham ya yi ta sukar lamirin Sarauniya da cin zarafinta. A wata makala da ya rubuta a wata mujalla, ya yi ikirarin cewa fadarta "makurar Birtaniyanci" da "manya a cikin al'umma" sannan ya zargeta da nuna gazawar yin jawabi cikin sauki ba tare da rubutaciyar takarda ba. Kalamansa sun tayar da kura a kafafen yada labarai, har ta kai ga an kai wa Lord Altrincham hari, inda magoya bayan Daular sarauta suka tare shi a kan titi. Duk da haka dai lamarin da ya faru ya nuna yadda al'ummar Birtaniya suka dauki sarauta, amma an samu sauyi cikin sauri, ta yadda rashin tabbacin da aka dade a kai ya zama abin jefa alamar tambaya. Daga matsayin masu sarauta zuwa iyalan gidan sarauta

Bisa kwarin gwiwar da ta samu daga mijinta, sai ta kasa hakuri da ra'ayin rikau na fadarta, don haka Sarauniya ta fara daukar sabon salon tafiya a doron zamani. An kawar da al'adar  karramawa ga mace mai daraja a fada, sannan aka shafe sunan 'martabar sarauta,' inda aka maye makwafinta da 'iyalan gidan sarauta."

Sarauniya ta sake shiga tsaka mai wuya a rudanin rikicin siyasa a shekarar 1963, inda Harold Macmillan ya sauka daga mukamin Firayiminista.

Saboda bukatar da ake da ita na ganin jam'iyyar Conservative ta fito da tsarin zaben sabon shugaba, sai ta amince da shawararsa ta nada Earl of Home a madadinsa.

Sarauniya ta shiga mawuyacin hali, inda daukacin mulkinta ya ta'allaka wajen gyara tsarin mulki, har ta kai ga an tsame hannun sarautar (kasar) daga harkokin gwamnatin lokacin.

Sarauniya ta rike matsayinta da gaske wajen saurare (na halin da ake ciki), ta bayar da shawara, tare da yin gargadi - baya ga haka, ba ta yarda ta ketara iyaka ba. Wannan shi ne karo na karshe da aka taba jefata cikin irin wannan hali. Karshe dai Jam'iyyar Conservative ta watsar da al'adar cewa sabon shugaban jam'iyya "fitowa kawai" yake yi, inda aka fito da managarcin tsarin da ake amfani Zuwa karshen shekarun 1960, Fadar Buckingham ta cimma matsayar fitar da managarcin tsarin da ake bukata don nuna yadda iyalan gidan sarauta ke tafiya da salon zamani, kuma cikin sauki za a iya hulda da su.

Sakamakon hakan ya bayyana a fim din kundin bayanai mai taken Iyalan gidan sarauta.' An bai wa BBC damar yin fim din gidan zuri'ar Windsors. Akwai hotunan iyalan wajen cin abincin alfama (da mutum ke zabar abin da yake son ci), tare da kwalliyar bishiyar Kirsimeti, inda suke tuka 'ya'yansu a mota - kusan dai daukacin harkokinsu, wadanda a da ba a taba gani ba.

'Yan adawa sun ce fim din Rchard Cawsto ya balbalta sirrin zuri'ar gidan sarauta, ta hanyar nuna su a matsayin gama-garin mutane, al'amarin da ya hada da nuna Duke na Edingburgh yana dibar romon miya a wajen cin abincin alfarma a kasan farfajiyar Balmoral. Sai dai fim din ya nuna saukin kai a wadannan lokuta, sannan ya kara musu dimbin magoya bayan sarauta.

Zuwa shekarar 1977 an yi bikin cikarta shekara 25 bisa karagar mulki, inda aka shirya dafdala a tituna, tare da bukukuwa a daukacin fadin masarautar. Sarauta ta samu karbuwa da kariya daga al'umma, kuma mafi yawan al'amuran an yi su ne saboda Sarauniya. Shekaru biyu daga bisani Birtaniya ta samar da Firayiminista mace ta farko. Dangantaka tsakanin Shugabar kasa mace da shugaba macen da ke jan ragamar gwamnati, a wasu lokutan lamarin kan rincabe.

Daya daga mafi wuyar al'amura ga Sarauniya shi ne dukufarta wajen kula da kasashe rainon Ingila, inda aka kaddarata a matsayin shugaba. Elizabeth ta san shugabannin Afirka da kyau, sannan tana tausaya wa fafutikarsu. An ruwaito cewa ta dauki halin Thatcher na tunkrar gaba-da-gaba a matsayin al'amari mai "daure kai" baya ma ga kin amincewa Firayiministar wajen kakaba wa Gwamnatin wariyar launin fata ta Afirka ta Kudu takunkumi. Daga shekara zuwa shekara Sarauniya ta ci gaba da hidimta wa al'umma. Bayan yakin tekun Pasha a shekarar 1991, ta ziyarci Amurka, a inda ta kasance Mai-sarautar Birtaniya ta farko da ta yi jawabi ga taron majalisar kasa.

Shugaban kasa George HW Bush cewa ya yi, ita 'ma'abociyar son 'yanci ce a tsawon lokacin da za mu iya tunawa.' Sai dai wata shekara daga bisani, an samu dimbin abin kunya da musifu da suka fara bibiyar iyalan gidan sarauta. Dan Sarauniya na biyu, Basarake Duke na York ya rabu da matarsa Sarah, yayin da auren Gimbiya Anne da Mark Philips ya karke da saki.

Sannan Yarima da Gimbiyar Wales an bayyana yadda suka rika zaman raba gari, har ta kai ga sun rabu. A shekarar dai an yi mummunar gobara a gidan alfarma na Sarauniya, wato 'Windsor castle'. Ta bayyana karara cewa gidan sarauta na cikin matsala.

Ga tsangwamar hayagagar al'umma kan ko kudin harajinsu za a dauka ko Sarauniya za ta biya kudin gyaran (gidan).

Kima a lokacin takaddamar al'umma

Sarauniya ta kwatanta shekarar 1992 a matsayin "shekarar firgici" kuma wani jawabin da ta gabatar a birnin Landan, ta yi nuni da amincewa da tsarin sarauta da zai baje al'amura a bayyane, ta yadda za a shawo kan muzantawar kafafen yada labarai. "Babu wata hukuma ko birni ko sarauta, kowace iri ce da za ta ki amincewa a bibiyi kadin al'amuranta daga wadanda ke martabata da goyon bayanta, baya ma ga wadanda suka barranta da ita. "Amma dai mu ma wani bangare ne na al'ummar kasa, don haka za a iya bibiyar kadin al'amura yadda ya kamata, matukar akwai girmamawa da fahimta."

Masarauta tana da kariya. Fadar Buckingham dai a bude take ga masu kawo ziyara.

Dangane da tara kudin da za a biya don gyaran Windsor, shi ya sa aka bayyana cewa Sarauniya da Yariman Wales za su biya kudin gyaran Windsor, kuma an bayyana cewa Sarauniya da Yariman Wales za su biya haraji daga kudin shigar da aka samu daga jarin da aka zuba. A waje dai tana da kwarin gwiwa ga kasashen rainon Ingila don ta yi matukar ba su muhimmanci a farkon mulkinta, ba ta samu cimma burinta ba. Birtaniya ta juya wa tsofafin abokan hadin gwiwarta, wadanda suka kulla sabuwar yarjejeniya a Turai. Har yanzu Sarauniya na bai wa kungiyar kasasen rainon Ingila muhimmanci, kuma ta nuna matukar farin cikinta lokacin da Afirka ta Kudu ta yi watsi da tsarin nuna wariyar launin fata. Ta yi murnar faruwar lamarin ta hanyar kai ziyara cikin watan Maris din 1995. A gida kuwa, Sarauniya ta yi kokarin kare martabar sarauta, yayin da al'umma ke ci gaba da takaddama kan makomar wannan hukuma.

MUTUWAR GIMBIYA DIANA TA WALE

Yayin da Birtaniya ke fafutikar samun sabuwar makoma, ta yi matukar dogewa a matsayin jigon al'umma mai bayar da tabbaci, inda kwatsam sai ta yi murmushi don samar da yanayi mai annashuwa. Babbar gudunmuwar da ta bai wa al'umma shi ne kasancewarta tambarin kimar kasa. Sai dai sarauta ta girgiza, kuma Sarauniya ta yi fama da suka bayan mutuwar Diana, Gimbiyar Wales, a wani hadarin mota a Paris cikin Agustan 1997. Yayin da cincirindon mutane suka kewaye fadojin Landan suna ta'aziyya da furannin kallo, Sarauniya ta yi biris sabanin yadda takan kasance mai fuskantar al'umma a lokacin da kasa ta shiga mawuyacin hali.

Mafi yawan masu sukarta sun kasa fahimtar cewa ta keto wani zamani da bai cika nuna damuwa a lokacn rudanin jimamin zaman makokin mutuwa, a irin al'amarin da ya jibinci abin da ya faru bayan mutuwar gimbiya. Sannan ta kasance kaka mai nuna kulawa ga jikokinta, 'ya'yan Diana da ke bukatar tausasawa a kebance karkashin kulawar iyalan. Kwatsam sai ta gabatar da jawabi kaitsaye, inda ta yi ta'aziyar surukarta, tare da ta nuna jajircewar masarautar na juriyar rashi.

DIMBIN ASARA DA BUKUKUWA

Rasuwar mahaifiyar Sarauniya da Gimbiya Margaret, daidai lokacin da Sarauniya ta cika shekara 50 a karagar mulki, a shekarar 2002, ya haifar da takaici a fadin kasar kan bukukuwan murnar tsawon shekarun mulkinta. Amma duk da haka, tare da yawan kai-kawon takaddamar makomar sarauta, miliyoyin mutane a katafaren shagon da ke gaban fadar Buckingham a yammacin ranar bikin cikarta shekara 50 a karaga.

A Afirilun 2006, dubban magoya baya sun jeru a titin Windsor don murnar zagayowar haihuwar Sarauniya shekara 80.

Kuma a Nuwambar 2007, ita da Yarima Philip sun yi bikin zagayowar ranar aurensu shekara 60, tare da aikin ibadar da mutane 2,000 suka halarta a dakin taron Westminster Abbey.

Sannan an samu wani yanayin farin ciki a Afrilun 2011 lokacin da Sarauniya ta halarci bikin auren jikanta, William, Duke na Cambridge, inda ya auri Catherine Middleton.

A Mayun wannan shekarar ta zamo mai sarautar Birtaniya ta farko da ta kai ziyarar aiki Jamhuriyar Ireland, al'amarin da ya kasance mai matukar muhimmanci a tarihi. A jawabinta, ta fara cikin harshen Irish, inda ta yi kira kan hakuri da masalahar warware matsalar rikici (ai sasanci), har ta yi nuni da cewa "al'amuran da muke fatansu sukan kasance sabanin yadda ake zato, ko ma su ki faruwa kwata-kwata."

KURI'AR RABA GARDAMA

Wata shekara daga bisani a ziyarar da ta kai Arewacin Ireland, a wani yanki na bikin cikarta shekara 60 a karaga, ta yi musafiha hannu da hannu da tsohon kwamandan 'yan tawayen IRA Martin McGuiness. Lamarin na da ban takaici ga mai sarauta, wadda bom din 'yan tawayen IRA ya kashe mata dan uwa, Louis Mountbatten a shekarar 1979. Bikin cikarta shekara 60 a karaga ya tattaro dubban mutane, wadanda suka yi dandazo a kan tituna, al'amarin da ya haifar aka yi ta yaukaka bukukuwa a hutun karshen mako a Landan.

Kada kuri'ar raba gardama kan 'yancin Scotland cikin Satumbar 2014, wata jarrabawa ce a zamanin Sarauniya.

Mutane kadan ne suka manta da jawabin da ta gabatar wa majalisa a shekarar 1977, inda ta bayyana karara irin jajicewarta kan tabbatar da dunkulalliyar kasar Birtaniya.

"Ni da dimbin sarakuna da sarauniyoyin Ingila da Scotland da Yarima na Wales a jerin kakanina, ina da kwarin gwiwar fahimtar kan irin wadannan burace-buracen. Amma ba zan iya mantawa da cewa na kasance sarauniyar da ta mulki Hadadiyar Masarauta (UK) Birtaniya da Northern Ireland." Cikin kalaman da ta yi wa magoya baya a Balmoral a daidai lokacin kada kuri'ar raba gardama kan 'yancin Scotland, wadda kawai aka yi da manufar son a ji, ta ce ta yi fatan mutane za su yi tunani mai kyau da takatsantsan kan makomarsu. Lokacin da sakamon zaben ya fito, abin da ta fada a bainar jama'a, ya nuna gamsuwarta da samun natsuwarta kan cewa tarayyar na nan daram, kodayake an fahimci sauyin yanayin harkokin siyasa.

Yanzu, yadda za mu ci gaba, shi ne mu tuna cewa duk da dimbin ra'ayoyin da aka baje, abin da muka yadda da shi, shi ne kaunarmu tabbatacciya ga kasar Scotland, al'amarin da ya kasance daya daga al'amuran da suka tabbatar da hadin kanmu.

"Ranar 9 ga Satumbar 2015 ta zamo mai sarautar da tsawon shekarun mulkinta ya zarta na kowa a tarihin Birtaniya, inda ta dara kakar-kakarta Sarauniya Victoria.

A wani irin salo, taki jinjina matsayin, wato da cewar matsayin "ba shi ne abin da na damfaru da burinsa ba." Kasa da shekara guda, cikin Afirilun 2016 ta yi bikin cika shekara 90 da haihuwa.

Ko da yake akwai yiwuwar sarauta ba za ta yi martaba da kimar daraja a karshen mulkin Sarauniya ba kamar yadda ta faro, don haka ta jajirce wajen ganin ta cusa kauna da girmamawa a zukatan 'yan Birtaniya. A lokacin bikin cikarta shekara 25 a karaga, ta tuno alkawarin da ta yi lokacin da ta kai ziyara Afirka ta Kudu shekaru 30 a baya.

"Lokacin ina da shekaru 21 na yi alkawari a rayuwata ta yin hidima ga mutanenmu, na kuma roki Ubangiji ya taimake ni in cika wannan alkawari da na dauka lokacin ina matashiya, inda nike yanke hukunci kaitsaye, ba na yin nadama ko janye abin da na nufa ko da kalma guda."

A Ranar Alhamis 21 Ga Watan Afrilu 2022 ta cika shekaru 96.



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